John S. Moolakkattu has briefly stated the well-known human ecological factors in his article. He has given an introduction and summarized the description of each of those factors that are contributing to the environment either it be negatively or positively. He then also mentioned the basic delineation caused by both western and eastern civilization. A connection through his writing is built between Gandhi and ecology plus environment. The written piece basically discusses how Gandhi’s views on environment emerge from the outcomes of the basic economic structure of the third world countries. Along with this, Moolakkattu also elaborated Gandhi’s vision and its importance with relevant ideologies and development stages of the humanitarian society. Depletion of natural resources and more strong propagandas of market liberals are in full swing whereas, Gandhi has a mentality in complete opposition to this that’s why Moolakkattu do not consider Gandhi as a complete liberal approach personality.

In this article, John S. Moolakkattu has stressed upon several rhetorical devices to focus on Mahatma Gandhi views of this contemporary world, where he has indulged in the environment, development, and ecology. The article clearly shows how Gandhi had widely anticipated on most of the environmental issues that we are facing in today’s world. If we look from today’s perspective, Gandhi cannot be appropriately seen as a proper strong ‘environmentalist’. Moolakkattu’s analysis of Gandhi’s ecology and environment contains a critical view of prognosis and alerts. He also contemplated needs that were centered on the limitations presented by Mahatma Gandhi on his views of environmentalism along with development. According to what Moolakkattu has stated as a descriptive scrutiny of Gandhi as an ecologist, he was forced to consider Gandhi’s approach as a bio environmentalist with a little touch of institutionalist. Gandhi somehow opposes globalization and calls for the dismantling of global structures by encouraging the local community.

According to Gandhi, “A certain degree of physical harmony and comfort is necessary, but, above a certain level, it becomes a hindrance instead of help. Therefore, the idea of creating an unlimited number of wants and satisfying them seems to be a delusion and a snare.” This statement of Gandhi filtered him from a market liberal worldview on the environment. John. S Moolakkattu believes that Gandhi does not agree to rapid economic growth, pursue short-term profits, and rise in economic standards of the society, contributing to a better environment. The author after analyzing the mentality of Gandhi, explains a better version of why Gandhi had a non-market liberal approach with undermining contexts and extracts related to him. Exemplified in the human ecological perspective, Moolakkattu also explains why Gandhi is also considered as an environmentalist critically. He explains that Gandhi always views all spheres of human life in an integrated approach that led to more focus and significance of human ecological systems.

John S. Moolakkattu views Gandhi on the basis of environmentalism in the Southern world, especially the developing countries and nations. Gandhi knew that his nation was going through an ‘Empty-Belly’ phenomenon, due to which he had to take his environmental values to a straight path. Moolakkattu used to appeal to emotion as a rhetorical tool where he declared a sense of relationship and emotions between Gandhi and his people’s well-being. Gandhi believes that discrimination, the rural-urban ratio, globalization, access to natural resources without being called the producers, were the main causes of this decline in environmental development. This interconnection between environment, development, sustainability, survival, and peace is the real essence of Gandhian environmental approach as described by Moolakkattu. Industrialization, economic progress with the generation of profits, and exploitation of human lives were at odds for Gandhi.

Moolakkattu’s explanation of Gandhi’s ideology shows that Gandhi was a man against colonization and European lead along with British empowerment in the industrial and economic sector in South Asia. The ways through which the western region of the world is trying to persuade while spending billions of dollars by setting up industries and productivity houses in common areas of South Asia and in countries with low economy shows that Gandhi’s prediction of this is somehow becoming a fact. Gandhi was greatly influenced by Buddhism and Jainism. The reason behind his influence was the representation of nature as a living entity. There were several western thinkers with anomalous philosophies about human and environment that frightened Gandhi and directed his moment of realization towards building a relationship between human and environment because, without humans, the environment might not exist in any form. An essence of romanticism and a bit of hatred for industrialization and creating urban structures is found in Gandhi’s blacklisted factors contributing to environmental destruction.

Critically if analyzed, Gandhi possesses a moderate and neutral way of approach when considering the environment. This article clearly expresses Gandhi’s views on environmentalism, however, a better image of Gandhi’s perspective could have been demonstrated if more statistics and graphics were used. There should be proper in-text and out-text relevant citations and links to references that might help the reader and audience to develop a sense of harmonic balance between Gandhi’s bio-environmentalist and institutionalist sides. The author should have taken this into consideration that Gandhi’s non-market liberal approach could have been more effectively designed by using shreds of evidence from Gandhi’s personal experiences of life to help in developing a clearer image of his opposition to globalization and urbanization. Gandhi has served as a political leader, the article could form better rhetoric and communication if links were made to contrast between his sides as a political leader and then as a common man so that the audience may learn how and what factors from a human side lead to sustainable environment and how does human life influence the changes in Earth’s atmosphere and rise in temperature as well.

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